The purpose of this web page is to help in the identification of the Yamini Dirhams of the Ghaznavids. Because of the large variety in design, these coins are difficult to identify if one does not read Arabic, like me. All Ghaznavids that issued coins are listed, but not all issued Yamini Dirhams. Many of these coins come from auctions on eBay and other auction sites. Some are scans of my own coins. These coins may be misidentified, and any help in correctly identifying them will be greatly appreciated. Other corrections will be greatly appreciated too. If you have any coins that you would like to add to this page, please let me know. I will be more than happy to add them and cite the owner. Click on this link to email me.

The Yamini Dirham is called this because it is named after the title of Mahmud (Yamin-ud-dulala Mahmud).  It is a slightly thick coin that is about 18 mm in diameter.  It can vary in weight from 2.2 grams (under Mas'ud III) to 3.7 grams.  There is a tendency for the coin to get lighter as the dynasty ages, but under Khusraw Shah, it has an average weight of 3.5 grams according to Tye.

The Ghaznavids started as Turkish mamluk (slave) governors of the Samanids in the Afghanistan area around Ghazna. Sebuktegin minted coins in his name in the city of Farwan. The Ghaznavids became independent of the Samanids in 999 AD (389 AH). Mahmud greatly expanded the Ghaznavid empire beyond Afghanistan. He expanded his territory into Pakistan from Sind to Peshawar.  His forays went as far as Mathura in India. Around 1160 AD (555 AH), the Ghaznavids were confined to the Punjab area of India. This dynasty ended in 1186 AD (582 AH), when it was conquered by the Ghorids.

Click on the Governor's or Ruler's name to view coins or to find out more about them.
The number of coins for each ruler is listed in parentheses behind their name.

Ibrahim bin
'Abd al-Ghaffar
Balkatekin *
Sebuktegin (5)
Isma'il (0)
Mahmud (22)
Muhammad (0)
Mas'ud I  (13)
Mawdud (4)
'Abd al-Rashid (2)
Tughril (1)
Farrukhzad (0)
Ibrahim (3)
Mas'ud III (2)
Arslan (0)
Bahramshah (1)
Khusrawshah (0)
Khusraw Malik (0)
Unknown (0)
* no known Yamini dirhams for these governors of the Samanids

Numbers used to identify the coins, in the listing for each ruler, are based on the numbers used in the Sylloge Numorum Arabicorum Turingen, Gazna/Kabul, XIV d Harasan IV, by Florin Schwarz.


Album, Stephen (1993), A Checklist of Popular Islamic Coins , Published by Stephen Album, Santa Rosa, CA.

Album, Stephen (1977), Marsden's Numismata Orientalia Illustrata, Published by Attic Books, New York.

Mitchiner, Michael (2000), Oriental Coins and Their Values: The World of Islam, Published by Hawkins Publications, London.

Schwarz, Florin (1995), Sylloge Numorum Arabicorum Turingen, Gazna/Kabul, XIV d Harasan IV, Published by Ernst Wasmuth Verlag Tubingen, Berlin.

Tye, Robert and Tye, Monica (1995), Jitals, Published by Robert Tye, Isle of South Uist, Great Britain.

I would like to thank my wife, Beverly, for allowing me the time to create and maintain this web site.  Thank you Beverly.

Created by Howard Cole, 2003
Revised March 2003

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